Annalistic – Unenizh, Track of Commune (Horodok)

Dating: 12th-13th century
Protection # : 551
Address: Eastern suburb of Nizhyn, on the way to the village of Lypiv Rih and to the south of the Kozyrivske cemetery.
Epoch: the Old Rus epoch;
Categories: archeology monument;

The Settlement on the territory of the Commune tract is identified with Unenizh in the cronicles of 1147. This village is located on the right bank of the Oster near the river bend. The so-called settlement is occupied by the ruins of Shepel’s mansion, its area is 1 hectare. The Posad (suburb) which is located around the settlement covers an area of 20 hectares.

The Tract of Commune (Horodok) is located on the right bank of the Oster near the river bend (4 - 5 meters high), in the middle of the flood plain (Fig. 1). The settlement occupies the area of a round shape (about 100 m in diameter) and is limited by a ditch from the west and the south. In the 19th – 20th centuries on the territory of the so-called settlement there was a mansion of a landlord, of which only some remains of brick buildings survived.

For the first time the settlement was mentioned by A. Lazarev in 1893. There exists an assumption that this is the town of Unenizh, mentioned in Hypatian chronicles in 1147.

To the south, west and east of the settlement there is a suburb. It is situated at a bend of a low right bank of the Oster and in this place it turns to the north-west. This elevation is surrounded by lowland in the north and in the west, which is 30-50 meters wide and behind which the cultural layer of the settlement continues to the north, south and west. The total area of outskirts is up to 13 hectares.

According to the materials of previous researches, the cultural layer is 1 m deep and is poor in artifacts. The sight is a multilayered one and dates back to the Neolithic Period (6th – 3rd millennium BC), Bronze Age (2nd millennium BC), Early Iron Age (7th – 3rd centuries BC) and 11th – mid-13th century. In the suburbs the remains of buildings (outbuildings, pits) of 12th – 13th were found.

During the archaeological excavations in 2011-2013 about 200 square meters were explored, but the scarcity of archaeological material, a small ditch and a lack of residential property deny the existence of a powerful inhabited locality or a large settlement.

Author(-s): I.S. Kedun, O.H. Parkhomenko