Nizhin through the centuries



The city Nizhyn located in the southern part of Chernihiv region. The city is a modern administrative-political, socio-economic, historical, cultural and intellectual center of Chernihiv region.

Nizhyn - one of the oldest cities in Ukraine, an outstanding center of Ukrainian Cossacks. Now the regional center Chernihiv region, a city of regional subordination. Located on both banks of the river Oster (inflow of the river Desna), which runs the city dug canal in 1812.

In the city there are ancient settlement XII - XIII centuries, the settlement of the Bronze Age (II millennium BC. E. E.) The early (III - V c.), Kievan Rus (XI - XIII century). barrow (II - I millennium BC. e. e.). First mentioned in Ipatiev Chronicle under the year 1147 as Unenezh (other possible names of ancient period - Nezhatyn, Nezhatyna Field). In the twelfth century was a fortress Chernigov principality in the south-eastern frontier. In 1239 the city was destroyed by the hordes of Batu. Since the mid XIV century was part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Since 1514 known as Nizhin.

Over the truce of deulino 1618 went to the Commonwealth. In 1625 the King Sigismund III at the site of the old settlement built a new city and building, in the same year the city received Magdeburg Law. By 1648 almost all Nizhynschyna possessions belonged to the great crown hetman Nicholas Potocki. As a result of the events of the war years 1648-54 radically changed political situation. Since June 1648 the city became the center of a Cossack regiment - the largest in Left-Bank Ukraine. 1658 with permission Hetman Vyhovsky the beautiful ancient city emerging Polish troops after hostilities soon leave town. In 1663 Nezhine is the so-called Black Board, which was elected hetman of Left-Bank Ukraine I.Bryuhovetskoho.

For Andrusovo Nizhin truce in 1667 went to Russia. In October 1708 Nijinsky regiment defended the city against the Swedes. Since 1742 the city passed through post road Kyiv-deaf; in 1770's built Nijinsky post office. During the second half XVII - XVIII centuries Nizhin is one of the leading centers for domestic and foreign trade of Ukraine. There blacksmith, weaver, potter, shoe, goldsmiths and other shops. The city brickworks were 8, 29 forges, 15 windmills, water mills 7, 2 breweries, malt 2, 3 pockets on the production of nitrate, 2 weaving factory. The 8 craft workshops, there were 657 artists. The city held three times a year fairs - Trinity, St. Basil and omnivores, the merchants who came from Russia, Western Europe, Eastern countries.

A significant role in the commercial life played Nizhyn Greek community, which settled in the middle of the seventeenth century. She got on the hetman B. Khmelnitsky and the captains, following a number of privileges, in particular self-exemption from taxes and duties. In 1675 there was Nijinsky Greek fraternity, and later operated a Greek magistrate, opened in 1696, the Greek school (since 1814 - Aleksandrovskoe Greek school). In Nizhyn Greek colonists lands cultivated special sort of cucumbers. Among other educational institutions in 1762 opened a private boarding school, 1782 - two-year national school (since 1812 - district school). In 1786 there were 7 parochial schools soon opened a women's gymnasium. In 1740 opened the first pharmacy on the Left Bank city.

During the XVII-XVIII centuries Nezhine carried out extensive construction of religious and public buildings (built in 1668 Nicholas, 1702 - Annunciation, 1778 - Vvedensky Cathedral); in 1721 Theophanic (Castle), 1731 - St. Michael, 1733 - Trinity, 1752 - John the Evangelist, 1775 - Exaltation of the Cross, in 1780-ies - All Saints Church. There were Vvedensky (1660), Annunciation (1702), Old-Christmas George (XVII-XIX century.) Monasteries. In the late eighteenth century. in connection with the conquest of Russia, Crimea and Black Sea Nizhin plays out commercial and military administrative center and in 1782 became a district city of Chernigov province.

With Nizhin the names of a number of prominent figures of the national culture XVII-XIX., Including Ukrainian and Russian writer, philosopher, church and political activist Stefan Jaworski, general pidskarbiya probably the author of the Chronicle Samovydets - R.Rakushky-Romanovsky, Ukrainian writer, teacher, church leader I.Maksymovycha, Ukrainian church and public figure, writer H.Konyskoho, explorer Yu.Lysyanskoho, Ukrainian and Russian historian M.Bantysh-Kamensky and Gogol. Nizhin visited Shevchenko, L.Hlibov Marco Vovchok, singer and composer S.Gulak-Artemovskij writers O.Afanasyev-Chuzhbynskyy, M.Herbel Russian artists Pushkin, O.Hryboyedov, M. Glinka, Polish poet A. Mickiewicz. In 1820, when the beautiful ancient city opened a high school science that the status equal to the university, the town was the only center of the county of Imperial, which had higher education (in 1832 reorganized in Physics and Mathematics School; 1840 - a legal Lyceum, 1875 - historical and philological Institute).

In 1846, there were 9,300 residents in 1866 - about 18,000 in 1897 - 34,213 residents. The self 22 churches, 2 monasteries, church and synagogue. Among the 27 small companies stood brass casting plant brothers Chernov. In 1868 he built the railway station. A growing number of schools: technical higher initial (1907) of cultural (1908) commercial (1910) College; there were several male and female gymnasiums. In 1893 People's House opened in 1905 - the people's library, 1906 - Summer Theater 1907 movie B.Verzhykivskoho.

After the Civil War began rebuilding the urban economy. In 1921 work began oliynytskyy plant, mechanical mill plant zemleobrobnyh machines mahorochna factory, brewery, industrial farm, in 1927 - a new power plant, and the following year were commissioned water supply and radiovouzol. Started activity Institute of Education (research and teaching institute), technical mechanization, transport and health.

Since 1923, the city became the center of Nijinsky district. On the eve of World War II there were Nezhine 7 factories, 17 promartiley; in a suburban area - 6 collective farms, MTS. After the liberation began vidbudovchyh processes. In the postwar period the beautiful ancient city are factories, "Nizhynsilmash", "progress", household chemical, mechanical, and other zhyrokombinat. Forming new residential areas, mostly in northern and southern outskirts of the city.